Posted in immunology, microbiology, Uncategorized

Back to the basics : Cornell Notes

I forgot how to study,

My notes seemed really muddy

I scribbled many things on my paper

Yet remembered nothing

Now I went back to basics

And I’m doing cornell notes now

Now here is something you can chow on

Viruses , viruses that’s what I’m learning

Some contain an envelope and some are naked

But if you keep checking them out

The filoviridae will latch itself onto your eyes

Soon You’ll be eating bloody pies

Inside a body bag

So  wear a biohazard suite and stay away

And be keep swaying your life until the day ends.



ebola meme
Source : google Image. I hope it’s not ebola.


Posted in immunology


TLRs which is short for Toll Like Receptors, function in recognizing a large variety of different ligands found on pathogens. There are ten human TLRs and each one recognizes a specific type of pathogen. For example TLR9 recognizes unmethylated CpG-rich DNA in the endosomes. TLR8 and TLR7 recognizes single stranded viral RNAs in the endosomes. TLR5 on the other hand is found on the plasma membrane and recognizes the Flagellin of bacteria.

TLRs were first discovered in a mutated Drosophilla. It was found that the TLR in the Drosophilla were able to recognized fungal pathogens. This led to the further understanding and research of other TLRs.